Finearts syllabus & Notes 2020-2021.

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A) Main features of Rajasthani school of miniature painting

1) The Indian indigenous style of Rajasthani paintings shows bold outline and brilliant colour in a harmonious pattern. 

2) The composition is very clear and simple which based on puranic and epic. Krishna Leela is most popular theme along with some stories of Ramayana and Mahabharat. Paintings are also based on life of common people and local love stories. Love story of Dhola Maru and rupmati Baj Bahadur are also illustrated in this painting. 

3) All figures are in same dimension without perspective women figure are duplicate in same manner. Lotus eyes flowing dresses, cylinder waste and Rory hands are the main features. 

4) Paintings are two dimensional. Faces are gently shown in profile. 

5) Mail use loose fitting garments, embroidered Pataka and turban. 

6) Female use loose long Ghagra, choli and transparent odhni. 

7) The female figure has been drawn relatively smaller than male. 

8) Flat colour scheme has been used. Different colour has been used with distinct meaning as read depicts worm, emotion and Fury, yellow the marvellous, Brown the erotic. The use of red, blue, yellow and green colour gives a contrasting brilliance, gold and silver colour have been used which added special glamorous to these paintings. 

Maru Ragini

Medium- Tempera on paper

PAINTER- Sahibdin


The love story of Dhola Maru is very popular in Rajasthan and is both in murals and miniature painting. Maru- Ragini is a Tempera painting done by sahibdin, a famous painter of Mewar School. in this painting, talking and a king his queen are riding on a well decorated camel in desert are, shown background. Foreground is in light green colour. The king is holding the Rings how the camel in his right hand looking toward the queen. The sky is painted in the blue colour to depict night. Two male escorts with stick on their shoulder are running side by side with the camel. One attendant is leading the camel. A white colour racing dog is shown ahead of the scorts. The dresses of the entire figure are in flat transparent colour with the impact of Mughal style. ‘Maru Sri Ragini’ written on the top of this miniature painting. The whole composition is in the Rhythmic motion, now it is a collection of national Museums, New Delhi. 

Raja Aniurudh Singh hara

By Utkal Ram

Medium- Tempera on paper

Sub School- Bundi

Utkal Ram of Bundi did portrait of Raja Anirudh Singh Hara. The painting shows the Raja on the back of a horse. He is dressed in typically Mughal costume along with turban. The king’s dress is decorated with orange and brown colours. He holds a flower in his right hand while 


controlling the reins of horse with his left hand. The scabbard and sword hilt are ornamented. The small head of the horse has added hugeness to the body of horse. 

Krishna on swing 

By Nuruddin 

Medium- temper on paper

Sub School- Jodhpur

This painting is one of the best paintings by Nuruddin. The painting has two parts depicting two different part of scene on the first part Krishna is shown sitting on a swing on the left side. Krishna’s upper part is Semi clothed and there is a white flower garland on his neck. There is a Dupatta hanging from his shoulder and he is wearing an orange colour dhoti. The blue complexion of his body has been highlighted. The swing has an ornamental border in a hexagonal shape. Radha sitting in front of him in the balcony is wearing traditional but decorated Ghagra and choli. They are looking each other. Her head is covered with a transparent odhni and she is sitting on a red carpet. There is a pillow supporting the back of both Radha and Krishna. 

In the lower part both Radha and Krishna are sitting at different place under a tree in the foreground. An attendant of Radha is also shown in the painting both Radha and Krishna are sitting on a red carpet supported by pillows. 

Radha (Bani Thani)

By nihalchand

Medium- Tempera on paper

SUB School- Kishangarh

The painting by Nihal Chand of Kishangarh of Rajasthani School has a special place in the treasure of Indian miniature painting. It is characterized by emphatic lengthening of eyes and nose. face is in profile with a very large eyebrow and smile on the lips. The decorative art of hair spirolling down in the cheek in front of ears. The painter was inspired by the poem of raja swant Singh who describe the beauty of a lady called “Bani Thani” in his poem. 


Her long tapering finger of the left hand is holding two Lotus Buds. Her odhni is decorated with Golden motif and her dress and jewellery reflect the taste and costume of contemporary Rajput royalty. The background of the painting is painted in dark blue. Radha (Bani Thani) has been taken as the best painting of Rajasthan. Postal stamp was issued by the government of India on which the’ Radha of Kishangarh’ was shown. 





This painting is painted by dana in jodhpur styl of Rajasthani miniature painting. On the upper side of painting, two princesses are shown sitting on their horse facing each other. They are playing polo with their four lady companions. They are also sitting on their horses in the lower side of painting though these horses are running in opposite direction. The companion’s faces are on the same side where princes are looking. They are trying to control the ball by long polo sticks all ladies have profile faces,high rounded forehead and elongated eyes. The companion had covered their head with odhni. All the dresses are in pure Rajputana style and well decorated. The ghagras spread out in bell like with the movement of horse. Very bright colour has been used in this painting the whole composition is against a light and flat green background. 

Bharat meets Rama at Chitrakut

By Guman



This extraordinary tempera painting of Jaipur School was painted by talented artist guman in 18th century. Its theme is based on famous emotional episode Bharat-milap of ramayna.In this painting bharat came to chitrakut for taking back his elder brother rama to ayodhya with three mother and gurus.In this miniature,49 human figure has wonderfully depicted in nine different the background,rama’s green coloured beautiful hut at chitrakut is shown in the dense forest.At its left,a small portion of mountain with shrubs and blue sky are shown.In the foreground saryu river full of lotuses is shown. 

The whole episode has been depicted in the middle ground of the painting.In the first scene mother are coming with their female attendant from left. In the second scene rama is greeting his mother along with sita and Laxman. In the third scene at the top,kaikeyee is embracing rama near his hut.In the fourth scene,ram is touching the feet of kaushalya. 


In the fifth scene,sita is talking with her mother in laws. In the sixth scene,rama is lying on the feet of his guru. In the seventh scene after listeningthe news of his father’s death from Maharshi vashishtha,rama becomes unconscious. In the eight scenes in the centre of middle ground,rama sitting in polite posture and discussing with his guru. Bharat is standing nearby while Lakshman and Shatrughna are sitting there. In the last scene rama,sita and Lakshman are saying good bye to all in the wright corner of this miniature.after promising that they would come back ayodhya after completing 14-year exile and full filling their fathers order. 



Pahari School of miniature painting comes into being after the end of Mughal school. A new style that was developed in the Himalayas, foothill of Punjab,garhwal and Jammu is known as Pahari school of miniature painting.It is mixed style of Gujrat, Mughal and Rajasthanischool. withAurangzeb prohibition of art, artist from Mughal court took shelter in hilly state of Himalayaslike chamba,basohli,guler,kangra,mandi,Kulu,garhwal etc. It is through them, the Pahari style of painting was born in 18thcentury .In these Himalayan states an indigenous art form based on folk art was already in existence. The first known specimen from basoli discovered in1650 was already matured. The Mughal and Rajput painters created a new Pahari style in fusion with the local folk art. The artist was not forced by the kings to draw subject matter chosen by them. Due to the freedom artist leave Mughal styl and give new expression to their theme. The main centre of Pahari school wasbasoli, guler, Kangra, chamba,mandi, Kulu, Bilaspur, Jammu,garhwal,Kashmir etc. 


Theme of Pahari school of miniature paintings are influenced by classical,literature,music and local culture. The Pahari school narrates Indian mythological and religious stories. 

In human figure, the backward sloping forehead, high nose in the same line of the forehead, lotus like large eyes are main features. 

In women’s wear tight half sleeved choli, the full Ghagra hanging below waist line and head covered with dupatta and abundance of ornaments. 

In men’s wear- Tight pyjamas, embroidered uttaria or kurta over the body, various types of pagri. Ornaments on hand,leg,earandneck were comman. 

The painters of Pahari school were great lovers of nature and depicted nature with care and love in their painting. The poetry of sur,tulsi,kesav,dev and bishari have been beautifully painted. 

Clarity of design and wonderful effect is created by the mixture of blue and yellow,red and blue,grey and brown colour which enhance the beauty of painting. 


The depiction of flowers and plants, creepers and trees, birds and animals reveal the power of keen observation of the artist. 






The painting ‘Krishna with gopis’ painted by famous painter manku. In this painting, lord Krishna is shown in happy mood with gopis at the bank of river Yamuna. All the eight gopis decorated in luxurious costume are expressing their regards and emotions to lord Krishna. The colour complexion of Krishna is blue.He is wearing bright yellow dhoti and a jewel decorated crown with peacock feathers on his head. The upper portion of his body is naked and decorated with variety of ornaments. The entire figure has profile face, slopingforehead, eye like lotus petals and sharp nose. In the centre of this miniature, lord Krishna is embracing to gopies, third Gopi is touching his feet, fourth is knee down posture and praying him, fifth is in param posture with her her palm folded, sixth is holding a fan like round structure, seventh is looking back and eight is holding a white Chauri. Facial expression of whole group is divine and spiritual. In the background variety of trees are painted in a queue in different colours. In the foreground Yamuna river has been depicted by a fine white flowing dancing pattern. 




This is a beautiful,attractive and crowded tempera painting of kangra sub school made by Nainsukh. In this painting a journey of nand, Yashoda, Krishna and kinsmen going to 


Vrindavan has been depicted in a very realistic mode. All the figures painted in this painting are shown in the traditional dresses have profile faces, sloping head, eyes like lotus petals and sharp nose. in the centre of this painting nand baba is shown in a decorated bullock cart having a frilled umbrella above his head. Just behind this bullock cart Yashoda is shown sitting with Krishna. This kinsman is also accompanying nand baba to this devine journey to Vrindavan along with there daily needs. Some kinsmen have milk, curd and butter pitchers on their head. This is a very alive and natural depiction of men, women, children, oxen and cows in this painting. In the background, roadside forest scene adds extra beauty to this miniature. 




Mughal miniature painting was originated in Persia and continued for about three centuries in India. The first Mughal emperor Babur established Mughal empire in India in 1526. He was a man of aesthetic sensibilities. His son Humayun patronized the art of miniature painting and brought few Persian artist to India. Notable name were abdus samad, Mir sayyid ali. Humayun and his son Akbar took lesson from these artists. The first major works of Mughal miniature were beginning under Humayun but was completed under Akbar. During his period miniature painting were lively and realistic. Akbar gave lands and high ranks to the artists as reward. This was the reason painters put their maximum efforts, infused their soul in the art of miniature painting. After Akbar his son Jahangir become the emperor. In his time Mughal painters achieved its zenith, both in decorative and natural study. Farrukh baigh, aqa raja and ustad mansoor were main painters during his period. Miskin, Jahangir,abul Hassan,ustad mansoor, ustad faquirullah khan, hazi madni were the famous painters of Mughal school. Miniature painting of the court of Jahangir’s son Shahjahan show the first decline. 


  • The workplace of Mughal school was confined to royal court only. Artist had no freedom to express their emotion for art. The artist painted for the desire and pleasure of the king. Mughal emperors were great lover of art. They used to pay much respect, name and fame to the artist. 

  • Every Mughal ruler was very much fund of portrait paintings. The portrait are depicted in profile or quarter profile. 

  • Mughal paintings are based on Indian non-Muslim stories. The composition of crowded scene is very lively in Mughal miniature involving too many forms and figures. 

  • The artist of Mughal school also painted the favourite topics of their master like hunting scene, night scene, nature beauty,birds and animals etc. 

  • Decoration of garments and ornaments done in Mughal school is also marvellous. The carpet on floor are full of beautiful design. 

  • The calligraphic inscription, halo around the emperor’s head and decorative border are the special features of Mughal school. 

  • The natural colour scheme infused life in the painting. Specially designed painted ornamental borders around the painting reflect the effect of Persian style. The use of gold and silver form crown to foot wears reflected the royal luxury of Mughals. 




Famous artist miskin of Akbar period did this painting on paper in tempera technique. In this painting lord krishna is lifting mount goverdhan. Face of krishna is one eyed profile. Krishna holding the mount goverdhan on his little finger. The mountain has been made to appear realistic by painting  massive, rock, large trees and many animals shrubs and grasses are painted between rocky ridges.A little bit of sky is visible above the mountain . Below the mountain people of braj are gathered along with their cattle to take shelter from the deluge caused by angry rain god Indra. Blue is the dominant colour in the painting. lord  krishna is painted in his virata-rupa. He is dressed in usual pitamber and a large garland of white flowers hanging from his neck.He stands in a relaxed posture lifting the huge mountain effort lessly. 

Birth of Salim

Painter: Ramdas

Period: Akbar

Medium: Water colour on paper

Collection: National Museum, New Delhi

The theme of this painting is based on an episode of Akbar Nama. It was on the occasion on birth of Prince Salim the whole people of Fatehpur Sikri and courtiers played music and celebrating the occasion.This is a beautiful miniature painted in Mughal style. Some of them playing drum, clarinet and other instruments. Some royal officials distributing money to the people of Fatehpur Sikri. It is a typical example of the later manner of Emperor’s court artists. The picture is in 3 compartments. The birth scene of the son of Akbar and heir forms the subject of the upper compartment.The other compartment is filled with musicians and servants. There is lot of excitement in the crowd outside. In the background is a rocky fandscape. The painting shows the busy momments and stress of the Akbar’s palace. Interest part in the painting is that the upper portion is the typical bird’s eye view while for the lower panel the artist Ramdas is on a level with the scene depicted. The strong colour contrasts, and the strong European influence, especially in the scenery and clothes, are clearly seen in this painting.




This is an excellent painting of the notable genius painter, ustad mansoor of Jahangir court. 

He painted it in tempera technique on paper in early 17thcentury AD. He painted this tamed (paltu) falcon resting on cushioned bird rest with highly realistic. The profile figure of falcon is painted in black and brown colours against a contrast in yellow background. The details of its feather are shown in brown colour Its sharp beak and round vigilant eyes painted in shades of light brown and deep yellow ochre .A thin thread around the falcon’s neck is also painted. This is one of the famous paintings of the world. Now it is a collection of national Museum, New Delhi.  




This tempera painting of saint kabir and raidas was painted by ustad faquirullah khan in 17th century A.D. He was chief painter of shahjahan court in this painting saint kabir is weaving a cloth beside his hut in the rural area. The other great saint raidas is sitting close to him with a mala of beads. Both saints are in deep meditation and in divine peace. This is clearly visible at their faces. The composition shows the simple and peaceful environment of Indian village. Very fine yellow and brown light and shades are used. The border of this miniature is of blue colour. This painting brings the simple and peaceful life of Indian village.





Provincial art of awadh become very powerful under nawab shuja-ud-daula.It reached at its peak under wazid-ali-shah. While keeping the basic mughal style, Awadh School developed a style of its own. 

‘’MARRIAGE PROCESSION OF DARA SHIKOH” was painted by hazi madni on paper in Tempera technique. In this painting, a well dressed dara shikoh is shown riding on a decorated horse back and he is leading his marriage procession. His father shahjahan is also shown on another horse just behind him. A light blue halo around Sahjahan’s head is shown to mark him special. Some of the royal people of the barat are also shown on horseback and on foot. Some women are also riding on elephant in the background. Some drummers are beating their drums on elephant. Large number of men, women and young children of bride’s party is receiving the barat. Most of the figure in profile and few in semi profile. All the people are in dressed in bright colour garments decorated with golden colour. They are dancing, singing and enjoying.



The plateau region in south between Narmada River and Krishna River is called Deccan. The new era of miniature painting took birth in Deccan after the decline of Behmani rulers. Islamic Behmani ruler were also great lover of art as they belong to Persian and Afghani origin, but they were frantic hence their love for art were confined only to decorative floral and ornamental designs. In the southern part of vindhaya mountain vijaynagar was a powerful Hindu kingdom where Indian art and culture flourished. The murals made on virupaksh temple and virbhandra temple representing the episode of Ramayana and Mahabharata shows the artistic heritage of Vijaynagar Empire. Behmani ruler defeated the great Hindu kingdom of vijaynagar in the battle of talikota. After that, the Hindu artists from vijaynagar and several mughal painters migrated from Aurangzeb’s court to develop a new style of miniature painting in Deccan. But Deccan school was mainly originated of the decline of Behmani ruler. Deccan school was developed in plateau region between Narmada Krishna 


River in south India during (1500-1800) ad. Though Deccan school in contemporary to Mughal School but it developed differently. Ahmad nagar, bijapur, Golkonda, and Hyderabad where main centre of Deccan school.



  • The painting style was influenced by mughal and Persian miniature. 

  • Deccani painting show a remarkable style of ragmala paintings. The colour in the painting is mostly dark with typical Persian blue and orange to produce artistic excellence. 

  • In human figures, they combined Persian and Indian figure, especially women in their indigenous costume, elongated faces sharp features, wide open eyes broad foreheads high neck over size jewellery, tall and cylinder figure are Deccani inventions. 

  • In portrait painting, the Deccani artists were greatly influenced by mughal and European and succeeded to producing a three dimensional effect. 

  • The Deccani artist from beginning tended less in realism more towards imaginary. 

  • The colour used in the painting is rich and brilliant and golden colour is used for flowering plants, costumes, jewellery and horizon. 



Chand bibi was the daughter of Husain nizam shah-1 of Ahmednagar. She was the great Muslim female worried of Indian history and she is best known for defending Ahmednagar against the mughal force of Akbar. This famous tempera painting of Golkonda was painted in early 18th century A.D. In this painting Chand bibi is playing polo with her three companions and a polo master. They all are wearing rich and colourful dress. Chand bibi is sitting on the white horse and her companion is sitting on red, yellow and blue horses. These horses are fully decorated Chand bibi on the white horse has bent on horse’s back to posses the ball. Polo master is standing in the centre of lower portion of the painting and directing the game. The polo ground is uneven painted in green colour. The costume of horse rider is richly decorated in bright colour. They were wearing multicoloured Ghaghara and choli. The sky has been painted in deep blue colour. In the foreground a pond with flowers and six water birds are painted. White moon in the sky shows evening time. Red, yellow, blue, green and brown colour is used in this miniature. 




This is one of the best paintings of ragmala series of Ahmednagar School. Ahmednagar royal court encouraged music very much. Hence artist adopted theme based on Indian classical music. In this painting a lady is shown playing veena in a palace. She is dressed white saree with various ornaments. A female attendant in white saree moving fan from right side while another maid in orange dress standing near on left side. A long lamp, ornaments elephant and a jug are kept in foreground. There is a dark orange dome at the centre of the roof. Few lines of Sanskrit poem are also written on the top. The artist has used orange and green colour but in a balance portion. The whole format in its background and fine calligraphy make this painting unique and beautiful.




This is a beautiful tempera painting miniature painting of Hyderabad sub-school. In this painting Sufi-sant hazrat nizam-ud-din Aalia is shown listening a Sufi song from Amir Khusro in a peaceful atmosphere. Both are sitting on a platform covered with yellow carpet in a beautiful garden. Both foreground and background filled with flowers in repetitive pattern. The Sufi is dressed with green gown. A halo is around his head. His body posture is cool and calm. Amir Khushro is shown in front of him .He is dressed in Hyderabadi costume and a cap. He is playing ektara. A tree with flower and fruits in the background adds extra beauty to this painting




Indian classical art of Rajasthani, Mughal and Pahari miniature painting credited with the establishment of British rule in 1857. The art school of Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Lahore which has been established by British the Western art education used to be given in western style. It caused a vacuum and darkness in expressing our views and ideas the first encouragement for revival of Indian art was led by the famous European Artist E.B.Havell, principal, art School, Madras and later on ART School Calcutta. Appreciated Indian art. Attracted the attention of the world toward the Indian great artist tradition. He motivated and inspired Abanindranath to study the technique used in Mughal, Rajasthani, Pahari and Ajanta paintings to create a new style. After that Abanindranath painted series of 

Radha Krishna painting. He also used Indian art, Western art, Chinese art and Japanese art which finally become the style of Bengal school and are known as wash painting E.B.Havell and doctor Anand coomar enhanced the fame of Abanindranath by exhibiting his painting. Beauty of Indian art spreader all over the world. His main student was Nandalal Bose, Asit Kumar Haldar, 


k.venkattappa, suren Ganguly, Devi Prasad Roy Choudhary etc. Who exhibited their painting on international stage and enhance the reputation of Indian art. Under the guidelines of Bengal School several new art School e.g.  Lahore, Calcutta, madras, Delhi, Jaipur, Mysore were opened all over the country by him and his students. Through this school Abanindranath style spreader among the student thus he was able to generate a great interest in the young student for the Indian classical art. 

Main features of Bengal School

  1. In this school so many religious, social, landscape, Birds, animals and historical event were painted.

  2. The soul of Ajanta is clearly visible in Bengali School.

  3. Bengal paintings have tried to introduce linear delicacy, Rhythm and grace of Ajanta in their painting.

  4. The impact of Mughal and Rajasthani School is also there in the Bengal paintings.

  5. The colour scheme of painting is very attractive and bright colour have not been used anywhere.

  6. Light and shade have been shown which has added softness in the painting.7) The rhythms of the human and animal figures give an extra ordinary pleasure to eye.


8) The perfect medium of Bengal School of painting was water colour, ink and Tempera. Japanese inspired technique was also applied to the painting.

Journey’s end

By Abanindranath Tagore

Abanindranath Tagore was born in the Tagore family in 1871. He was the creator of Bengal School of painting and restore National Pride by reviving the greatness of traditional Indian painting. ‘Journey’s end’ painted by Abanindranath in new technique which he evolved with the fusion of Tempera and wash. The pain and suffering of a dumb animal be clearly seen due to burden in the half open eye of the animals.


Red, brown and yellow wash of colours give the background and the sky is filled with the light of sunset. The foreground is painted in the darker tone of the same colours. In this painting he showed of falling camel containing a heavy load tied to his body. The 4 leg are bent and knees along with the head and neck are in the sand and the Hind legs are straight. Pathetic scene make the human heart upset. A massive load on the camel back shows the greed of the master in exploiting the slave to their last breath. His life journey is about to come to an end with the end of the day.




MD Abdul Rehman was born in 1897 in Chugtai family in Lahore. The painting Radhika by Chugtai is drawn in profile. In this painting a very delicate Indian lady shown. Postures have also been made romantic. She is holding two lotuses in both of her hands. She is wearing a light violet colour Ghagra, red colour choli and yellow colour Dupatta in typical Indian style. Her black hair is flowing down her back. Her eyes are unique in arc of eyebrow. The artist has succeeded in creating an impression of Radhika Bean delicate, flexible and graceful. There is a lamp with stand in the left side of painting in Mughal manner. The lamp has illuminated Radhika. The background is painted in blending of black, red and yellow colour.  

Tiller of the soil

By Nandalal Bose

The Tiller of the soil is one of the 83 Haripura poster made by Nandalal Bose in 

1937. Mahatma Gandhi invited him to decorate all Indian session Pandal at Haripura. He applied the technique borrowed from Kalighat pat painting for this purpose.


 In this poster farmer is shown indulged in ploughing his field. He is half naked and shown wearing a folded dhoti and a turban on his head. He is also holding a stick in his right hand. His oxen are well decorated with clothes and ornaments.  The ploughed field is shown by three curvilinear lines. This poster represents Indian life and culture. The whole composition has been made very fast with Tempera colours on paper. Now it is a collection of National Gallery of Modern Art.


By kshitindranath Nath majmudar

Raslila is a well wash painting of kshitindra Nath Majmudar. He painted this painting in 1926. In this painting Krishna shown dancing with 11 gopis under trees in full of rugged trees trunk Laden with leaves. Krishna and gopis are shown gentle and rhythmic body gesture. They have delicate look. There is the hollow around Krishna’s head. He is decorated with various types of ornaments. Krishna is half naked dressed in dhoti, gopis are painted in lehenga, choli and dupatta. Their facial expression in full of divine pleasure. The act of dancing and singing is painted nicely and artistically. Theme of Raslila is taken from Bhagwat Puran in which Krishna Gopis dance is called ‘maharas’. Really it is a very beautiful and attractive wash miniature.


By Ram Gopal Vijayvargiya

Ramgopal Vijayvargiya painted the theme Meghdoot in three separate series based on Abhigyan shakuntalam written by Kalidas. In this painting the cloud is known as a messenger in the form of Meghdoot in rainy season. Meghdoot would take the message of yakshas message to his lover. This painting effect of Bengal school and Ajanta yakshas is shown knee down posture having in profile face.  He has a white flower in his left hand. He is shown indulged in writing a love letter in forest type in the lap of nature. He is shown wearing traditional dhoti and having a long cloth on his left shoulder. There is a flower garland around his neck and a janeu on his right shoulder. The clouds full of rainwater are shown floating very close to yakshas as if they were eager and excited to take message from yakshas and send to his lover. Where clouds are affected in a very special manner which looks nature attractive.  The birds are shown flying higher than clouds. Now, it is a collection of National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.

Contribution of Indian artists in thestruggle for National freedommovement

Indian classical art Rajasthani, Pahari and Mughal miniature painting was faded with the establishment of British rule in 1857. The Art school of Mumbai, Madras, Kolkata Lahore which had been established by British the Western art education used to be given in western style. British artist spreaded propaganda that India had no worthwhile traditional fine arts and Indian was incapable of learning it. They did their best to establish the superiority of Western art and culture over the 


Indians. At this situation famous painter like Raja Ravi Varma, Abanendra Nath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Asit Kumar Haldar and M.A.R Chugtai came out with their excellent art work to establish the purity of Indian art over lifeless Western painting. The great artist gave a tremendous moral boost to Indian National Movement. Indian Society of Oriental art was established in 1907 by renowned people and art lover of Bengal. Abanindranath painted the picture of ‘Bharat Mata’ which was praised everywhere as patriotic art. He started teaching Indian classical art. Thus he was able to generate Nationalism in young generation and avoid western culture and western style. Indian sentiments were deeply rooted in the Bengal School. They were struggling in an era of independence of self respect and self determination in socio, economic and political sphere. This way the Indian artist contributed in the national freedom movement.

Evolution of Indian national flag

First 1906,   Middle 1921 and    final 1947

First national flag-1906


The first Indian national flag of India was hosted on August 7, 1906 in the Parsee Bagan square (Green Park) Calcutta. Sachindra Nath Bose and Sukumar design a layout of first national flag for our country. The flag was composed of three equal horizontal strip of green, yellow and red. The green stripe on the top had eight white lotuses shown in a row. The word “Vande Mataram’’ was written in dark blue colour in devnagri script on the middle yellow stripe. The lowest red strip had a white sun in the left and white crescent moon with stars in the right. The word ‘Vande Mataram’ was used first time for expressing the patriotism. Hence, this important slogan was written on the first national flag.

Middle national flag-1921

The second national flag came out in 1921 in tricolor under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi during the meeting of all India Congress party at Vijayawada. An youth of Andhra Pradesh, Pingali venkaiyah design two coloured flag and handed over to Gandhi ji which was made in Red and Green colour that represented two measure communities Hindu and Muslim of the country. Gandhiji suggested to add one white strip as a symbol of the rest Indian communities and to put a dark blue coloured Chakra in its Centre as a symbol of progress.

Final national flag-1947

 On July 22, 1947 finally one new flag was hosted which was adopted as a national flag of independent India by constituent assembly with some correction in the middle national flag. This tricolour flag took the new shape with saffron at the top, white on the middle and green at the bottom in equal proportion. “Dharam Chakra’’ of Sarnath Lion Capital in navy blue colour has been put instead of ‘Charkha’. Its length to breadth ratio is 3:2 and the diameter of Chakra is nearly equal to the width of white strip of the middle. There are 24 spokes of Chakra which is the representative of 24 hour of the day.

Colours significance


  1. Saffron- courage and sacrifice

  2. White- truth and peace

  3. Green-   faith and chivalry

  4. Chakra- progress and Dharma Chakra

  5. 24 spokes- 24 hour of the day

  6. Blue- Unity

Modern trends in Indian art


Indian art during 1900-1925 came to be dominated by the Bengal School. Raja Ravi Varma, a self tought painter of south, popularified mythological theme with very realistic style of west. Abanindranath Tagore from Bengal, develop and Indigenous style of painting and built up Bengal School along with his disiples like Nand Lal Bose, Vinod Bihari,  Sharada ukil and other. Amrita Sher Gil, trained in Paris appeared in the art scene of India. She combined the Western technique. The famous poet Rabindranath Tagore started paintings at the age of 67 and blocks the impressionist in his painting. Gaganendranath tried cubistic painting. Jamini Roy, rediscover the beauty of folk art and redefined it into modern art. Ramkinkar at Shantiniketan started sculpture and painting in a expressionistic way. DP Roy Choudhary started bronze casting, figurative converted into abstract painting to search beauty. Somnath hore, Anupam sud brought variety of Modern Art By their graphic prints. 


Rama vanquishing the pride of ocean

By Raja Ravi Varma

This is a famous mythological painting of Raja Ravi Varma, painted on an important episode of valmik’s Ramayana. He successfully shows the Rama’s anger at the ocean for his non cooperation to build a bridge to Lanka. Rama wanted to construct a bridge over the Ocean to reach Lanka with his forces for bringing back his wife Sita from Ravana’s custody. Rama threatened ‘varuna’ God of water that he would destroy the ocean from his bow and arrow. Karuna along with his wife is speedly come forward and requested Rama not to dry the ocean. Then he allotted angry Rama to build a bridge on the ocean. This is a realistic painting with western technique. In this painting Rama is shown in only fluttering dhoti which depicts the strength of the Wind blowing from the ocean. The sky is painted in dark colour. The flow of sea waves is painted as they are striking back from heavy sea rocks. Rock is shown in the foreground in dark brown colour. Brown, blue, yellow and light pink are used in this painting. Now it is a collection of the chitrashala Musore.

Mother and child

By Jamini Roy

Medium- Tempera on watercolor


This is watercolor tempera of ‘mother and child’ was done by the famous artist of Bengal, Jamini Roy in 1930. In this painting, mother is holding her child with left hand on her left waist. Both of them have fish shaped open eyes and bold eyebrow. The shape of their faces looks like a cup and has cool and calm expressions of love. They are decorated with white colour. Mother’s right hand palm is red. She is wearing brown saree of green border decorated with black lines. On the left lower part of a flowering steam of the plant is shown. The final decoration done in bold line which makes whole composition very rhythmic and attractive. Perfect use of vermilion yellow ocher, Brown, green, blue, black and white colours is giving extra look to this painting. This word resembles with Kalighat pat works. Now it is a collection of National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi. 

Haldi Grinder

Artist: Amrita Sher Gil

Period: Modern

Medium: Oil colures on Canvas

Collection: National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi

The painting shows the burden on the life of women in India Use of bright, saturated pigments is particularly marked in the painting .In this painting three women are portrayed in the centre of the picture. They are wearing plane yellow, white and red saris. There is a dark black and brown woman behind the tree; she seems to be in rest mood. Bright coloring on the dress against blurred and faint brown background with two massive trees make the painting very effective and forceful. This picture has shown the females of rural life as weak, yet commanding .Has portrayed the ordinary females with depth, strong sense of dignity and massive power on their livelihood.

Mother Teresa

By M.F Hussain

Maqbool Fida Husain was born on September 17, 1915 in Pandharpur, Madhya Pradesh. He painted ‘Mother Teresa’ in 1979. Mother Teresa, who lived in Kolkata and served the poor and the homeless is a world known personality. This inspired Hussain to paint a series of paintings on Mother Teresa. In this painting Hussain has not shown her face. But left the space dark. The saree with blue border identifies Mother Teresa. The composition is divided into three parts by two uneven vertical pillars. The colours of pillars are yellow and light brown. In the left, mother is talking care of a child on her lap. In the centre there are two mothers like forms. They are faceless. One raised hand shows the gesture blessing. The veil of one of them is extended towards right .The red reclining figures is covering the whole space from left to the right. A devotee is touching the hand of the figure. The dominant colours of the painting are dark purple, white, red, yellow and green.

The Vulture

By Kamlesh Dutta Pandey

Dr. Kamlesh Dutta Pandey was an educationist, writer and painter. He was one of the founder members of samikshawad. In his lifetime he had many exhibitions to his credit which were organized across the country.

Dr. Kamlesh Dutta Pandey’s “vulture” painting is proof of the devil of dowry present in the modern society in India. The active vulture, ready to snatch the flesh of body without thinking whether the animal would leave or die, has great similarities with the Indian woman who is treated as a creature and has no say in respect of male.

 Our male dominated society has made them such a helpless creature that they cannot think about their life. The dowry system is a slur on our society. We have abolished this discrimination system to create a new world for women, where they may feel full freedom of life and achieve equality with the male population.

Graphics prints

whirl pool

By Krishna Reddy

Krishna Reddy was born in 1925 in Chittor, Andhra Pradesh is one of the most renowned sculpture and graphics artists of the world. He made whirl pool in 1962. this is an exclusive etching on zinc plate in intaglio technique. In this work, he has shown an impression of whirl pool in his experimental style. First he catches the whirling motion of water in his mind, and then he was created it on his print. In this print the water is soon coming from all sides towards its centre and creates the image of whirlpool. Krishna Reddy has successfully caught the whirling motion. The painting gives an image of wave converging toward the centre from all sides. The artist uses the different shades of blue and green to enhance the texture of the print which gives special brightness.

Of wall

By Anupam Sood

Anupam Sood is one of the finest print makers of the modern age. She was born in 1944. Of wall is a graphic print in lithograph. In this monochromatic with lithography print, a women is Shown sitting on one side. On her back there is a brick wall with plaster. She is wearing traditional dress of a widow. Her blackface indicates that she has also died after her husband. The brick walls isolate her from social life. Some folk types of white line drawing are also drawn on the wall. In the foreground lower portion of a male figure is shown near the women. Some part of temples like structure is also visible from back of the wall. The Print is a powerful protest by the artist against society creating such a wall on the basis of caste, religion, and status.


By Jyoti Bhatt

 Devi is an excellent image of Deep teaching done by a famous Indian graphic artist Jyoti Bhatt. he was born in Bhavnagar, Gujarat in 1934 and completed diploma in fine art from M.S university, Baroda in 1954 and post graduate degree in fine art in 1956. his work ‘DEVI’ is based on the concept Kundalini power with lies in the muladhar Chakra( in point of spine) in all human being when this power arises in a person, it generate immense power to feel divine pleasure and light forever. Jyoti Bhatt shows the female fertility power in the lower part of this composition and male power in the heart of the Devi. The Spiritual grace of Deve is depicted by two flowers shows on her cheeks. She is shown wearing flower in her ears. on her symbolically depicted right Palm three word ‘pseudo’, ‘tantrik’ and ‘Kundalini’ are written in English script while one word is written in devnagri script. similarly, on her left palm, he has written his name in English and three words ‘tantrik’, ‘Ram-Ram’ and ‘Sree’ in devnagri script. In the Midst of the serpentive Kundalini the word Ram-Ram is also written. Red bindi Ornaments the forehead of Devi’s head. Her large eyes resemble the image of Goddess Durga.


By Somnath hore

He was the most versatile artist of modern India. He was born in 1921 in 

Chittagong now in Bangladesh. He made this print work in 1958. The children and etching with black and white work by Somnath hore symbolizing his lifelong protest against the injustice on humble and innocent poor people of the society by the rich and powerful ruling class. The composition shows five standing figure, all victims of starvation. Two boys are standing with their mother. A girl is standing left side of the print. This girl might be their sister whose back portion is visible. One child is shown at top. His face and hand are only visible. All members are shown in torn clothing. To indicate their total isolation there is no background, perspective, surrounding as if they are totally abandoned by society. The deeply etched ribs and check bones appear deep gashing wounds.

Man, woman and tree

By K.Laxma Goud

K.Laxma Goud was born in 1940 in nizampur, Andhra pardesh. He is one of the finest printer and print maker of modern India. He received the diploma in drawing and painting from government art and architecture Hyderabad in 1963.Man, woman and tree is one of the best known graphic prints of k. Laxma Goud. 


In this print a man and woman is shown in midst of beautiful shrubs. Both are facing each other and there is a smile face. the man is shown in the Groove of three Trees. Only upper portion of his body visible.A very simple young woman is shown in a saree of dotted print. She is wearing a nose ring, a Mangal Shutra and two bangles in each hand. The fourth tree is shown behind her. the face expression of both man and woman are innocent and caring as if they were doing great jobs of parenting nature. The message of this print that correlation between human and nature must be maintained for survival of mankind.  Now, it is a collection of National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi.



By D.P Roy Choudhary


D.P.Roy Choudhary was born in Rampur now in Bangladesh. He was genius both in painting and sculpture. In sculpture he used clay modelling, plaster of paris and bronze casting Triumph of labour is a sculpture made of bronze is one of the best example of his work of sculpture. The four figures in the group engaged in moving a massive rock with the help of wooden log. They are muscular labours their heads are covered with thin cloth to protect against the heat of the sun. The labour they put as a symbol of progress of man. The difficult reverse movement which is a unique feature of the sculpture.

Santhal family

By Ram kinkar vaij

Ramkinkar studied at visva Bharati in Shantiniketan and was closely associated with Nandalal Bose and Binod Bihari Mukharji. He is one of the best known as sculpture and painter of India. He generally used concert for his sculpture. SANTHAL family is made of same medium by him. This is culture is a complex composition of Santhal couple with a dog and a Child sitting in a basket hanging from a pole. The woman is walking beside the man. She has a load on her head. It represents Migration of Santhal family in search of livelihood with full hope. This sculpture is situated on the road side in ‘Kala Bhavana’ Shanti Niketan.

Cries un-heared

By Amarnath Sehgal


The wide known bronze casting sculpture ‘cries un-heared by Amarnath sehgal won him the president Golden plaque award in 1958. It is a symbolic creation of a family of three figures, the parents and their child, expressing the deep anguish the sculpture at the injustice prevalent in society. the figures are tall and hand raised toward the sky are shouting to the word how through the ages they have been victims of political and social injustice with no one to here to there protest. The Mask like faces of the victims seems to suggest they have been suffering at the hands of unjust people in society, who have been exploiting them.


By P.v jankiram

P.V Jankiram was born in 1930 in Madras. He received the degree of fine art in 

1953 from government Art College Madras and in sculpture in 1963. P.V jankiram ‘Ganesha’ in oxidized copper is one of the finest creations. The six handed dancing figure of Ganesha using lower two hands to hold Veena and playing it. While four other hold the traditional sankha, Chakra, Gada and Padma (lotus). The sculpture shows unique feature of forms, smoothness of surface and ornamentation as there is an effort to revive the folk art of south. The form gives a hint of moment in his dancing posture.


By Aekka Yadagiri Rao

Aekka Yadagiri Rao was born in 1940 in Hyderabad, where he completed his studies in College of Fine Arts. Chatturmukhi is a famous sculpture depicting four different faces phases of women’s life. This is sculpture is made of sandstone, thirteen feet height. It is based on geometrical form on a square platform. it is four sided large Monolithic column sculpture placed in the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi. The front face of sculpture shows a woman’s head which symbolizes her memories starting from her childhood to her middle age. The other side which depicts the virgin made whose hand is folded in bud shape. The third sides show the woman in the company of a male which perhaps represents her newly married life. Fourth side of the sculpture is a representation of different feminine aspect of women. The complete view of the sculpture leaves.

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